E-Pals

Unfortunately, I forgot to keep track of my e-pals account after we created our accounts at the beginning of the semester. I checked it to see if I would be able to do complete this assignment, and received a couple emails from a teacher located in England. I really wish I remembered to keep checking my ePals email throughout the semester, because I could have at least exchanged emails with this teacher and give her an American perspective of U.S. culture that they could then relate to their students. It would have been interesting to learn about life in England as well. Overall, I think I will revisit ePals when I have a classroom of my own in the future, so that the students themselves can exchange information. Which could turn out to be an activity that they quite enjoy. 

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a10-Accommodations

Piechura-Couture, Kathy, Nina B. Hollis, and Mercedes Tichenor. “The Boy Factor: Can Single-Gender Classes Reduce The Over-Representation Of Boys In Special Education?” College Student Journal. N.p., 1 June 2013. Web. 20 Apr. 2014. 

From this journal article I learned that “Since the early 1990s numerous studies have concluded that there is an
over-representation of males and minorities in special education” (The Boy Factor). The article also discussed single gender education and that there is a belief of a biological difference between males and females and how they learn in the classroom. A study conducted found out that there are differences in how boys and girls hear and see. The fact that boys and girls have differences in hearing can be the reason why many boys look like they’re not paying attention or why teacher need to re-direct them most of the time. After reading this journal article it has made me become aware of something I didn’t think needed attention to in a classroom. That is how boys and girls learn differently in a classroom. In my future classroom I will now be aware of this fact and make sure to accommodate for both boys and girls so that they can get an equal learning experience.

Karam, Azza. “Education As The Pathway Towards Gender Equality.” UN Chronicle. N.p., 2013. Web. 21 Apr. 2014.

From this journal article I learned that there are some significant inequalities in education regarding gender. For example “surveys in 55 developing countries reveal that girls are more likely to be out of school at a lower secondary age than boys, regardless of the wealth or location of the household” (UN Chronicle). I also learned how there aren’t as many women in fields such as engineering, science, or technology, compared to more popular fields like humanities and social sciences. This article also discussed that gender-discrimination in education is caused by differences that exist in todays society. “Disparities, whether in terms of poverty, ethnic background, disability, or traditional attitudes about their status and role all undermine the ability of women and girls to exercise their rights” (UN Chronicle). After reading this journal article it has informed me that throughout the world girls aren’t receiving an equal education as boys, and the reasons for that. In my future classroom I will not discriminate against gender and provide an equal education to both boys and girls.

McGrady, Patrick B., and John R. Reynolds. “Racial Mismatch in the Classroom: Beyond Back-White Differences.” Sociology of Education. N.p., Jan. 2013. Web. 23 Apr. 2014.

From this journal article I learned that “students who are taught by teachers of the same race and ethnicity receive
more positive behavioral evaluations than students taught by teachers of a different race/ethnicity” (Racial Mismatch). I learned the reason for this is because mainly white teachers are racially biased due to racial stereotypes of groups who might be more academically orientated than others. This article also talked about how black students face disadvantages as compared to there white classmates. These students receive lower scores on behavior and ability from white teachers. After reading this journal article I think it’s important for me to learn not to discriminate against any student and to treat all students equal, and to grade equally not based off of race.

Bassok, D. (). Do Black and Hispanic Children Benefit More From Preschool? Understanding Differences in Preschool Effects Across Racial Groups. Child Development81, 1828-1845.

From this journal article I learned that some recent studies are suggesting that the effects of attending a pre-school vary by race.”Among a subsample of children living below a poverty threshold, no racial differences in preschool impact are detected. However, findings suggest that non poor Black children benefit substantially more from preschool than their non poor White or Hispanic peers” (Child Development). This article also talks about how these findings are being used to narrowing the racial achievement gaps. After reading this journal article it has informed me on an issue that I didn’t even know existed. I also found this article extremely informative and interesting to read.

Anastasiou, D., & Keller, C. (). Cross-National Differences in Special Education Coverage: An Empirical Analysis. Exceptional Children80, 353-367.

From this journal article I learned that there is a great difference in how countries around the world provide special education. “This study investigated the role of educational and socioeconomic factors in explaining differences in national special education coverage” (Exceptional Children). The article talked about how factors that describe a country’s general education context can play a role in explaining cross-national differences in special education coverage. After reading this article I learned how different countries prioritize special education. Becoming a teacher in the future I would love to help out and make my self available to helping out special education students, and I think its important to prioritize special education.

Keddie, A., & Niesche, R. (). Productive engagements with student difference: supporting equity through cultural recognition. British Educational Research Journal38, 333-348.

From this journal article I learned how some Australian teachers support student equality through culturally recognizing each students background. This article also talked about how even though its mandatory for schools to embrace cultural differences, school practices generally do not value and work with student diversity in equitable ways. This school in Australia “provides intensive English as a Second Language (ESL) support for newly arrived refugee and immigrant students to Australia. The group of educators comprise the school’s ‘Justice, Equity and Peace’ (JEP) group, which is responsible for improving the equity outcomes of students” (British Educational). After reading this article I learned that it is important to embrace each students cultural differences, and for schools to accommodate for those students.

Jones, I. (). he Effects of On-time, Delayed and Early Kindergarten Enrollment on Children’s Mathematics Achievement: Differences by Gender, Race, and Family Socio-economic Status. Educational Sciences: Theory & Practice.

The purpose of this journal article was to examine if social-economic status effects kindergarten enrollment and mathematic achievement. From this article I learned that children who came from low social standing families began school with lower math abilities than do the children from higher social standing families. “Findings of this study suggested that children with delayed enrollment in kindergarten had stronger mathematic skills than children with on-time enrollment in kindergarten, who had stronger skills than children with early enrollment” (Educational Sciences). After reading this journal article it has informed me of a finding that I wasn’t aware of before.

Strand, S. (). School effects and ethnic, gender and socio-economic gaps in educational achievement at age 11.. Oxford Review of Education40, 223-245.

From this journal article I learned that there are long standing achievement gaps in England associated with socio-economic status.The article analyses the national test results at of students age 7 and 11 of 2,836 students attending 68 mainstream primary schools in an ethnically diverse inner London city. “Low socio-economic standing students in the more effective schools performed significantly better than high socio-economic standing students in the less effective schools, but all students (both low and high SES) benefit from attending the more effective schools and so these schools do not eliminate the socio-economic standing gap” (Oxford Review). Becoming a teacher I learned that it is important not to judge a student based on their socio-economic standing after reading this article, and to make sure every student receives the same education.

Sweet, R. (). Science, Technology, Engineering and Math Readiness: Ethno-linguistic and gender differences in high-school course selection patterns. International Journal of Science Education36, 610-634.

This journal article examined “ethno-linguistic and gender differences in Grade 12 course choices while accounting for personal and situational differences among students” (International Journal). The study found that math and science course selections were associated with ethnicity. The article suggests that ethnic diversity and broader academic exposure may play a crucial role in changing the gender composition of science classrooms. From this journal article it has informed me of how students who come from different ethnicity or cultural backgrounds select there courses.

Weiss, F. (). Gender differences in the influence of parental class on young adults’ participation in postsecondary education in the US.. Journal of Further & Higher Education38, 182-199.

From this journal article I learned that re-enrollment in college can depend on parental social background. “Working-class men are constantly disadvantaged in their chances to re-enroll in education throughout their lives compared to men with more privileged family backgrounds, while working-class women are only disadvantaged among early re-entrants” (US Journal). After reading this journal article I learned a lot about how social-economic status has such a great effect on your education throughout your life.

A8-Future

1st essay “Cross-Cultural Confusion in Teaching Assessments”, offers alternative forms in our present era of education. Multiple choice tests which were formerly used, have not been able to capture what teachers actually do in the classroom. This vision was prompted in 1987 to a group called TAP. They established a board called NBTS. National Board for Professional Teaching Standards. They concluded teachers should be certified by a board of other teachers. They asked a group of scholars to comment on the project. Lisa Delpit writes that she was concerned that good teaching would be the same in all contexts and cultural settings. She was afraid the right way would hinder the chances of teachers of different color or ethnic backgrounds, who worked in schools without middle-class white children. Students of different cultures are unfairly judged and teachers from different cultures may be unfairly judged also. Delpit wrote and presented a paper at the 1988 Conference of American Educational Research Association voicing her concerns.  Shanon Nelson- Barber, of African-American decent, who was on the TAP staff, also had concerns. She helped Delpit write another version of the paper.

The second essay, “The Politics of Teaching Literature Discourse” shows concerns of white teachers of English and Language Arts. Teachers are reluctant to teach “standard English”, they believe it de-values their home languages, also they feel it interferes with the emotional connection of their identities. This essay brings up concerns and attitudes towards handicap students and provides other ways to handle the situation, The book Freedom’s Plow, published the version presented here.

The final essay, “Education in a Multicultural Society: Our Father’s greatest Challenge” is a modified version of a speech done at Howard University for the 1991 Charles H. Thompson lecture. This piece shows what I believe needs to change in order to improve education for children of color and poor children. To succeed we need to do something about the differentials between, teachers and parents, poor and wealthy, whites and people of color. We need to realize that we all see things and views of the world differently.

 

The first article that I reviewed was titeled “Educating Citizens in a Multicultural Society: The Case of South Korea”. What I learned from reading this article was how South Korea is having challenges integrating multicultural education into their current citizenship education. South Korea is trying to move towards being a more multicultural society, since a growing number of foreigners are residing in the nation. South Korea’s current social studies curriculum mainly refers to global education, “arranging the world’s cultures on a nation-by-nation basis”(). Since South Korea is experiencing a growing number of international foreigners move to their nation, public educators are now acknowledging the different multicultural features of society as a main aspect of social studies education. If Korea is believed to be culturally and ethnically homogeneous and without any change to that, this will result in human inequality and social segregation of people. “Students should understand social and cultural changes, build up proper attitudes toward changes, and behave accordingly in a multicultural society”().

 

 

 

 

A7-Lessons

The first of these lessons comes from Papua New Guinea, where Delpit did research on academic systems amongst an incredibly diverse population of people. She tracks the success of the Vilis Tokples Schools, in which students are taught primarily in their own village/culture’s language at first and then (after receiving the critical cultural lessons of their people) learning English, the language of business and government. Delpit quotes Linguist Joshua Fishman: “The quest is for modernity … AND authenticity, simultaneously, for seeing the world, but ‘through our own eyes.'”

In “Hello, Grandfather” Delpit relates similar lessons that she learned from Alaska Natives while teaching at a teacher education college program in Fairbanks. The lessons tend to buck the typical “mainstream” thinking regarding such topics as literacy and pedagogy. In some minority cultures it is crucial to understand that context is more important than in mainstream Western culture, which revolves heavily on the “decontextualized word.” Likewise, community and connectedness tend to be of greater importance in minority cultures and should be taken into account in a multi-cultural classroom. Learning styles and basic modes of understanding are shown to be different depending on cultural backgrounds, and Delpit challenges educators to take these differences into account.

The third and final essay in this section focuses on “Rethinking Teacher Education for Diversity” and incorporates the feedback of minority educators as they consider the worth (or lack thereof) of their teacher training. The interviewees express frustration with the lack of openness to ideas of the minority and lack of appreciation for their unique experiences and narratives in comparison to the codified and research-based “white” ways of talking about education.

The first scholarly article that I reviewed was about future teachers and study abroad. This article talked about how colleges are now requiring students who plan on teaching that they study abroad. The goals that these schools have for requiring studying abroad are “1) how to prepare white, middle class, female students enrolled in teacher education programs to work with the increasingly diverse populations of students that they will teach in the future. 2) how to develop global perspectives in preservice teachers. Some programs, further  seek to raise preservice teachers awareness of the struggle for social justice as an international issue. The article then discussed how a major challenge in teacher education is how to prepare the predominately white preservice teacher population to work with diverse students” (Phillion).

The second scholarly article that I reviewed was about Linguistic and cultural diversity in Europe. This article talked about how “one-third of the European population under the age of 35 years has an immigrant background. This is an important, but is not the only, cause of linguistic and cultural diversity in the European educational systems. Unfortunately, these systems did not in the past adapt very well to diversity among their populations. In all European school systems, pupils with immigrant backgrounds are severely disadvantaged” (Gogolin). The article then discussed the actual diversity in European Urban Areas. “Independent of
whether or not the school pays attention to it, diversity of languages and cultural backgrounds is a common element of the socialisation of all children in European urban areas, as Europe is an attractive target for migrants. In fact, all European societies are – and will remain – immigration societies” (Gogolin).

Delpit talks about other cultures she reminds us that we have our own biases whether we realize them or not. You may not be racist towards an ethnic group but there are still attitudes that you may have towards a group of people that are inaccurate. She says, “Even when individuals believe themselves to have good intentions, their own biases blind them from seeing the real people before them (74).” I also like that Delpit points out that, “diversity…is this country’s reality.” Why is it that in one of the most diverse places in the world there is not a good enough educational system to fit everyone? Delpit says, “…children learn to read only once, and if they learn to read in a language they already understand orally, they become literate much more quickly and effectively than do those who learn in a foreign language (88).” She proceeds to say, “They might go on to learn English literacy and other outside knowledge, but by first learning their own language and their own cultural values, they would always “know how to live at home (88).” Shouldn’t it be our goal to help students succeed wherever they end up? What if they end up moving back to their native home and stay there. By allowing students to learn about their culture in school they are able to hold onto their cultural ties.

Work Cited:

-Delpt, Lisa. Other People’s Children: Cultural Conflict in the Classroom. 1st. 2006. Print.

-Gogolin, Ingrid. “Linguistic and cultural diversity in Europe: a challenge for educational research and practice.” 1. (2002): n. page. Print.

-Phillion, JoAnn. “Reimagining the Curriculum: Future Teachers and Study Abroad.” n. page. Print.

A6- Controversies

Delpit admits that the “Skills and Other Dilemmas” article began, “as a letter to a University of Alaska colleague to lay out my concerns with the writing project movement and to detail the frustrations many teachers of color felt at being excluded from educational dialogue–in this case, the dialogue about literacy instruction” (Delpit, “Skills” 180). As Delpit began teaching and working with other African American teachers and students, her thoughts dramatically changed. First of all, black teachers believed that their students were already fluent. Since their students had mastered fluency, the teachers wanted to push their students to the next level. “They are anxious to move to the next step, the step vital to success in America–the appropriation of the oral and written forms demanded by the mainstream” (Delpit, “Skills” 184).

Lisa D. Delpit’s “The Silenced Dialogue: Power and Pedagogy in Educating Other People’s Children” addresses concerns about “skills” versus “process” approaches to writing instruction in regards to how these approaches affect students who do not belong to what she calls “the culture of power.”The culture of power in our schools, Delpit states, comprises white and middle/upper-middle class students. These students tend to do better in school because, claims Delpit, they hold “cultural capital;” they already possess the discourse patterns and values that are reflected in our educational system. Students without cultural capital tend to struggle, according to Delpit, because they must learn new language codes and value systems, many of which are implicit. “When implicit codes are attempted across cultures,” Delpit explains, “communication frequently breaks down.” These students often find themselves being held accountable for knowing a set of rules that no one has taught them.

In the article “Language Diversity and Learning” the author Lisa Delpit discusses the issue of varying languages and dialects in the classroom. Her ultimate argument is that our country and its schools are only becoming more diverse, and that we must pay attention and be accepting of language diversity to educate this diverse population. Delpit warns about effective filter and trying to force standard english on our students. Affective filter is something that disrupts a student’s ability to learn when he or she becomes unmotivated or anxious.

The first article I reviewed was about diversity in the classroom. The article came from a chapter in a book about innovative teaching strategies. The article talked about today’s classrooms being very different from those in the past. Also by using the strengths and originality of diverse students, the final classroom product can be much stronger than the product of an assimilated, cookie-cutter one. It also talked about how changes in the classroom are still continuing today and that classrooms in the future could look different than today. “Educators need to be flexible, aware of trends and patterns, and able to respond to continuing challenges.”

The second article that I reviewed was about how new teachers of color negotiate sociocultural challenges in the classroom.  The call to recruit and retain teachers of color in urban high-minority schools is based on an assumption of a cultural match with students. Yet new teachers of color may find themselves challenged by students with whom they are supposedly culturally matched. The study examines the induction experiences of new teachers of color in urban high-minority schools as they negotiate challenges about cultural identifications. Teachers drew on “emergent multicultural capital” to negotiate challenges in ways that shaped teaching practice.

What I learned from the Other People’s Children articles written by Lisa Delpt was all about the diversities that can exist in a classroom and how teachers need to adapt to them. Delpt brought up a lot of big controversies that exist in today’s society and education system. One of the controversies that she explored is how usually the part of society that is higher in class usually doesn’t acknowledge the power struggle between them in the lower class. Reading all these articles I was not surprised by all of it. Today’s classrooms are getting more and more filled up with kids from different diversities and backgrounds. It’s important for educators to learn the proper ways to teach and the communication skills they must use to make each student feel welcome. It’s the duty of teachers to be able to give each student the most enriching education possible not matter their background.

Work Cited:

-Delpt, Lisa. Other People’s Children: Cultural Conflict in the Classroom. 1st. 2006. Print.

 

School Effectivness

From the Eurobarometer report on Employers’ perception of graduate employability I learned that “Large companies, public organizations, and those in the non-public services sector were more likely to estimate that more than a fifth of their employees were higher education graduates” (Eurobarometer). Although companies hired graduates from a wide variety of majors, the majors that where hired the most seemed to be business, economic studies, and engineering. The most important skill that recruiters looked for when hiring graduates was the ability to work in a team, and computer literacy. Graduate recruiters also highlighted the importance of team-working, communication skills, being able to adapt to new situations, first-class ability in reading/writing, and analytical and problem solving skills. “Graduate recruiters in the industry sector were most likely to highlight the importance of foreign language skills when recruiting higher education graduates” (Eurobarometer). The most important skills and capabilities selected by employers for future graduates to have are sector-specific skills, and good numeracy. “A large majority (89%) of employers – who had recruited higher education graduates in the past five years – agreed that these graduates had the skills required to work in their company”(Eurobarometer). Graduate recruiters who’s companies had international contacts highlighted the capability of speaking a foreign language as there highest value. Graduate recruiters in larger companies said that graduates with Master degrees would best match the skills and requirements of there company, while recruiters in medium sized companies answered that graduates with Bachelor’s degrees would be a better fit.

What I learned from reading The availability of skilled workers in CT is that the availability of qualified workers is one of the top challenges confronting employers in CT. “Employers say they simply cannot find enough skilled workers and is a challenge that is certain to become increasingly significant in coming years”(Skilled Workers). 82% of businesses say that their company has experienced difficulty in finding qualified workers within their industry. Businesses blamed the high cost of living in the state and housing affordability as the reasons for the shortage of skilled workers. The employee skill sets that are most in demand are technical/ manufacturing related skills, communication, leadership, teamwork, positive work ethic and punctuality. Employers typically recruit individuals employed within their industry. “Sixty-four percent of businesses surveyed said they seek out qualified candidates in underutilized labor pools, including veterans, persons with disabilities and workers age 55 or older” (Skilled Workers). A quality education is something that is highlighted by the fact that half of employers require at least a high school degree for the majority of new hires, and 18% require at least a bachelor’s degree. “Connecticut’s business community is eager to work with educators and policymakers in addressing the state’s shortage of qualified workers. They recognize the need for improved educational opportunities for Connecticut’s students as well as affordable living and housing for the state’s young, educated workers. They are taking measures to remain competitive so that the state’s economy can continue to grow” (Skilled Workers).

What I learned from reading CT’s Manufacturing Workforce is that manufacturing businesses indicated the educational institutions that they where most likely to hire employees from and they where graduates from CT technical high schools, 44% from traditional high schools, 30% from community colleges, and 31% from state universities. ” Satisfaction with graduates of traditional versus technical high schools varies considerably, with 61% of manufacturers satisfied or highly satisfied with technical high school graduates compared to only 28% satisfied with traditional high school graduates” (Workforce). Higher education is delivering graduates who are meeting the needs of the state’s manufacturing businesses. Connecticut manufacturers expressed concerns about finding and attracting skilled labor. The top five most  difficult positions to fill were CNC programmers, tool  and die makers, CNC machinists, CAD/CAM technicians, and engineers. The top tech. skills that employers search for in order for their companies to remain competitive are critical thinking/problem solving, blueprint reading, quality assurance, CNC machining, CNC programming, and CAD/CAM. “When it comes to the skill sets of existing employees, 39% of manufacturing businesses said entry-level employees lacked skills such as punctuality and work ethic, while another 34% cited a lack of basic skills such as math and reading. An additional 31% reported a lack of technical skills, and 23% cited advanced skills (Problem-solving, scientific, and computer) as most deficient among their entry level employees” (Workforce). To addressee some of the skill deficiencies, 54% of manufacturing businesses are offering on-the-job training to their entry-level employees.

 

Phil & History

I choose the topic of students with disabilities because it’s something that I was very interested in learning more about. I’ve never personally known someone with a learning disability, so I think that choosing this topic would help me better understand what it’s like for these students and what is being done to help them in school.I would also like to know if these students have to take any sort of medications to help them stayed focused and or do better in school, and if some schools recommend that these students take certain medications for their learning disability. Through this assignment I hope to learn more about the different types of disabilities that students can have, and what is being done in schools to help these students. Such as programs throughout different grade levels (Elementary to College), homework and test taking help that is available for these students, and counseling or therapy that some of these students may need to receive. I would also like to look at how this theme of students with disabilities has changed over the course of US education. For example what was being done in schools for these students in earlier times, and where there programs and resources available for them. Also when did these programs start becoming mandatory or available for schools to have for these students with disabilities. And what made US Education realize that these students deserve the same treatment as students without disabilities. 

Creating Positive School Experiences for Students with Disabilities- http://www.readingrockets.org/article/26319

I choose this resource because it provided a lot of information about students with disabilities. It talked about how in 1990 federal legislation made the American Disabilities Act to protect the rights of individuals with disabilities. Although this is a federal act it cant always protect them from subtle forms of discrimination and prejudice. This website went into talking about attitudes toward students with disabilities. “Recent research suggests students and teachers possess somewhat negative attitudes toward students with disabilities, or that they view individuals with disabilities as different from and inferior to individuals without disabilities”(Reading Rockets). The site also gave great information about how student outcomes related to negative attitudes and behaviors. “Individuals with disabilities often internalize negative attitudes”(Reading Rockets). “Moreover, the negative attitudes and actions of others can negatively affect the behavior, social relationships, education, employment, and health of individuals with disabilities”(Reading Rockets), “because their self-perceptions are greatly influenced by the attitudes and expectations of others” (Reading Rockets).

Disability & Education Laws- http://nichcy.org/laws

I choose this resource because it gave a lot of information on disability and education laws. There’s the IDEA Act, “which guides how states, school districts, and public agencies provide early intervention, special education and related services to more than 6.5 million eligible infants, toddlers, children and youth with disabilities” (NICHCY). The No Child Left Behind Act which is the nations largest public education law. This act has brought sweeping changes to our educational systems. There is also the Americans with Disabilities Act which is the first declaration of equality for people with disabilities. “The ADA protects the civil rights of people with disabilities in all aspects of employment, in accessing public services such as transportation, and guaranteeing access to public accommodations such as restaurants, stores, hotels and other types of buildings to which the public has access” (NICHCY).

Services for Students with Disabilities- http://student.collegeboard.org/services-for-students-with-disabilities

I choose this resource because this website showed all of the different services available for students with disabilities. Students with disabilities are able to apply for SSD testing accommodation when taking the PSAT/NMSQT, the SAT, SAT Subject Tests and Advanced Placement Program (AP) Exams. This site also provides great information on how to apply, who is eligible, what information is required, and how to use approvals. “The College Board’s Services for Students with Disabilities (SSD) provides a broad range of accommodations, such as Braille tests, large print, and extended time, to students who provide documentation of a disability.  The College Board is committed to ensuring that students with physical or mental disabilities receive appropriate accommodations on its tests” (College Board).

Career Opportunities for students with disabilities-  http://www.cosdonline.org/home

I choose this source because it provided information on career opportunities for students with disabilities. “COSD’s mission is to improve the employment rate of college students and recent graduates with disabilities on a national basis” (COSD). “COSD works with higher education institutions and assists them in developing collaborative relationships between Disability Services and Career Services offices on campuses” (COSD). This website gives great information for students with disabilities who are looking for a job and provides a national online job posting and college student resume database system.  COSD also hosts a national conference where the objective is to provide a safe place to share questions and answers and provide an understanding to perspectives of students with disabilities, higher education professionals and employers.

10 Myths about ADHD Special Education Law- http://www.additudemag.com/adhd/article/8946.html

I choose this source because it provided great information on special education services that children with ADHD are entitled to. ADD/ADHD is among the most thoroughly medically-researched and documented psychiatric disorders. I learned that “schools can’t require a student to take medication as a condition for his being eligible for special education or any school activity” (ADDitude). “Taking medication is a decision to be made by the family and their doctor”(ADDitude). “If the student has ADD/ADHD and qualifies for special education or a 504 Plan, the school must develop appropriate academic and behavioral supports to meet his needs, whether that student takes medication or not” (ADDitude).

Students with Physical Disabilities speak out on challenges in school- http://www.nea.org/home/55319.htm

I choose this source because it provided information on challenges in school that students with disabilities face. This site had great insight to what these students experience everyday at school. These interviews with the students range from from in class experiences to after school sports activities. Also male and female experiences and also ranging in grade level to see how it varies in different grades. For example “in high school, Curtis realized his sports options were limited, and he felt left out of the athletic “jock” culture American high schools celebrate” (NEA). “Fortunately, his P.E. teacher in high school was especially inclusive” (NEA). “He’d find activities for him in the weight room, and when the high school held a jog-a-thon fundraiser, he set up cones for Curtis on the asphalt so he could complete the same distance the other students were running by doing laps around the cones in his wheel chair”(NEA).

Thirty Years of Progress in Educating Children with Disabilities Through IDEA-https://www2.ed.gov/policy/speced/leg/idea/history30.html

I choose this source because it provided information on the history of educating children with disabilities. This site gave in-depth information on the formation of several different special education laws and how these students benefit from them today.”Congress enacted what was then the Education for All Handicapped Children Act  on Nov. 29, 1975″(ED). “The law was intended to support states and localities in protecting the rights of, meeting the individual needs of, and improving the results for infants, toddlers, children and youths with disabilities and their families”(ED). I learned that in 1970, U.S. schools educated only one in five children with disabilities, and many states had laws excluding certain students, including children who were deaf, blind, emotionally disturbed or mentally retarded, from its schools. “Today, thanks to IDEA, early intervention programs and services are provided to more than 200,000 eligible infants and toddlers and their families, while about 6.5 million children and youths receive special education and related services to meet their individual needs”(ED).

History on Special Education-http://www.learningrx.com/history-of-special-education.htm

I chose this source because it gave a lot of information on the history of special education. It talks about the roots of when special education in the U.S began, “one of the first organizations was the American Association on Mental Deficiency, which held its first convention in 1947″(History of Spec. Ed). During the 1960’s, an increasing level of school access was established for children with disabilities at the state and local levels. It also provided details on how special education acts were starting to be passed, “In 1986, early intervention programs for infants and education services for preschoolers were added”(History of spec. Ed). “In 1990, services and eligibility were again expanded and the law was renamed the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA)”(History of spec. Ed). The IDEA has been reauthorized and expanded ever since.

Choose the right special education placement for your child-http://specialchildren.about.com/od/specialeducation/p/specialedrooms.htm

I choose this source because it gave information on the different types of classrooms available for students with disabilities. The first type is the inclusion class.In an inclusion class, children will be in a regular education class with his or her age peers. In addition to the regular teacher, there will ideally be a special-education teacher whose job it is to adjust the curriculum to the child’s abilities. Another type is the resource room. “Students who need intensive help to keep up with grade-level work in a particular subject may be placed in the Resource Room, where a special-education teacher works with a small group of students, using techniques that work more efficiently with a special-needs population”(About).

Types of learning disorders- http://www.understandingspecialeducation.com/learning-disorders.html

I choose this resource because it gave information on the different types of learning disorders students can have. “Most learning disorders can be categorized into four areas of information processing, these include input, integration, storage and output”(understanding spec. ed).The site goes into depth about what each learning disorder is and the signs/ symptoms. The site also provides information on causes and risk factors, and signs of learning disabilities. Such as trouble learning the alphabet, rhyming words, and connecting letters to sounds, trouble organizing thoughts and what they want to say, and trouble following multiple directions.